3D concrete printing (3DCP) is an innovative technology that employs software control to precisely position materials, constructing a 3D object or structure without the need for conventional formwork. The primary method in 3D concrete printing involves extruding cement-based composites, including mortar with fine aggregates or concrete with larger aggregates. 3DCP offers the potential for producing intricate geometric structures in a fully automated process, yielding benefits such as material savings, efficiency, enhanced production efficiency for complex concrete items, and novel architectural design possibilities. 

The  global shortage of skilled labor in the construction industry is exacerbated by the increased demand for construction work. 

A 3D construction printer is a 3D printing system specifically developed and specialized for construction.

  1. As with regular 3D printing, a digital model of the building is created using CAD software.
  2. The digital model is converted into G-code and uploaded to the 3D printer.
  3. A material delivery system is connected to the printer.
  4. The printer then reads the G-code and lays down successive layers of the supplied material.

Each project may require a different size of 3D concrete printer. To determine the most suitable 3D printer for your project, consider two key factors:

  • Printable Area (PA) which is the area size (width x length x height in meters) of building you would like to print.
  • Installation Area (IA) which is the area needed for the BOD2 printer.

There are no strict requirements for options or upgrades, but we recommend the following:

  • Tangential control (hardware & software): This  allows the print head to continuously turn in the print direction, enabling the use of square nozzles with flaps which can be used to ensure smoother vertical surfaces. 
  • Mixer pump/M-tec Duo-Mix: includes automated on/off and a 20-meter  (65 feet) concrete hose used for material supply to the printer. 
  • Silo:  A minimum of 3 m3 used storing dry mortars and concrete materials 
  • COBOD installation services at the customer’s location 
  • COBOD training (priced on a weekly basis) 
  • Setup & Maintenance kit: A set of tools for assembling the printer, including an alignment laser, measuring tools, various drills, wrenches, and more. 
  • Printing kit: A collection of tools for assisting with printing jobs, such as spatulas, brushes, hammers, wrenches, printhead stands and more. 

Yes, it is possible later on to add modules as the printers are modular, they can be upgraded at a later time. In addition to the new modules that have to be ordered, you will need an entire new and long enough set of cables (normal price around 20.000 euro). That means you can stay up-to-date with our technology.

Explore the COBOD Configurator for examples of printing time!

The speed at which you can print a specific structure depends on several factors, including the size of the print/build, material properties, the experience of the operation workers, and other project management considerations. 

The wall design, whether a single wall or a double wall with a cavity in-between, must also be considered.  The printer has a maximum speed of 100 cm/sec, but the actual speed used can vary based on factors like pump size, material selection, and more. Typically,  printing speeds of around 40 to 50 cm/sec are achieved.  

For instance, smaller buildings like a 50m2 3D printed house can be completed in a single day using our BOD2 3D construction printer. 

Yes, with our COBOD BOD2 printer, you can 3D print houses and buildings up to 10 meters (32 feet) in height, making it possible to create three-story structures. The technology has already been used to successfully 3D print numerous two-story buildings and houses. 


3D construction achieves significantly faster project execution, with potential productivity gains of up to 20 times when compared to traditional construction. 

As an example, GUtech 3D printed the walls of three buildings in eight days, demonstrating an extraordinary level of speed and efficiency.  

Yes, the printer must be installed either on pre-made concrete blocks/feet or can be mounted on an existing concrete slab. Refer to the specification sheet below for details.  

It is essential to clean the printer (including washing out the concrete), and the components that come into contact with the concrete after every print.  Typically, daily cleaning takes approximately 20-30 minutes. 
Maintenance and cleaning schedules are outlined in the user manual, which we provide to our customers. The manual offers comprehensive information and detailed instructions. 

The time it takes to set up our printer depends on how much experience you have. A well-experienced team can set up the printer in less than 4 hours, and even less time when concrete bases are used for the installation. Larger printers (more than 4-5 modules in length and width) naturally require more time.

Typically, a team of 3-4 people.  It is recommended to have more people present on the ground at the initial stage.  

Printer Operator 

It is recommended that the operator has a good technical background and has a good knowledge of 3D modeling. This person will be the main contact with the architects to make sure the printed structure is according to the drawings provided.  

(Recommended Printer Operator should have background in Architecture – Civil Engineering – 3D printing – Mechanical engineering) 

Materials Operator 

For this role, it is recommended to have an individual with an engineering background and physical fitness. This person will handle tasks such as batch preparation, initial material examination and testing (including slump and vein tests) and adjusting the mix to match the printing conditions. They will also coordinate closely with the printer operator. 

(Recommended Materials Operator may have a background in Civil Engineering, expertise in 3D Printing, Mechanical Engineering, or Concrete and Construction). 

Materials Operator Helper 

This role requires someone with good physical strength and health in order to help with the measurements as well as support the Materials Operator with cleaning and refilling the silos.  

(Recommended Materials Operator Helper should have previous experience in construction sites) 

Hands-On Helpers 

On-site Hands-On Helpers to help set up the printer hose, move around, and provide ongoing printing visual inspection. It is also recommended if they   can drive a boom loader to feed the batch plant with materials while printing (filling up the sand and aggregates … etc.), flush the system and clean the equipment.  

(Recommended Hands-On Helper should have previous experience in construction sites) 


The same team can also be trained to install and uninstall the printer on-site with the help of a crane. 

Our COBOD BOD2 printer is highly durable and extensively tested. We estimate its lifespan to be around 20 years, similar to other construction machines. However, it’s important to note that because this technology is still relatively new, we have not witnessed a printer reaching the end of its operational life yet.  


There are multiple ways for you to get a 3D printed house. If you have specific plans, contact us, and we can connect you with a distributor or partner in your area, so your dream of owning a 3D-printed home can become a reality!

This topic is covered in detail during training when you receive your printer. The process will vary from project to project, but the standard construction process consists of the following steps:

  • Site preparations
  • Printer installation
  • Printing outline of slab/foundation
  • Casting slab/foundation
  • Printing walls for the ground floor
  • Installing deck
  • Repeat for multi-story buildings
  • Closing the house (roof, windows, doors)
  • Finishing (paint, floors, electricity, HVAC)

In many instances, it’s beneficial to initially 3D print at least the foundation’s outline to ensure a perfect fit with the printed house. Subsequently, the foundation can be reinforced, filled, and cast in accordance with local building codes. 

Thermal insulation relies on two key factors:  

1. The insulation’s thickness, which is the space between the outer and inner wall.

2. The insulation’s lambda value which represents its insulating properties.  

When these two factors are combined, they determine the R-value, which must adhere to local building code standards. 

Plumbing and electrical installations are traditionally completed manually. However, the 3D printer can assist in the preparation process by creating openings in the printed walls for electrical sockets, pipes, and more. These specifications are incorporated into the drawings, resulting in time and cost savings for the project. 

Numerous plumbers and electricians have relayed that they saved multiple days of work thanks to the foresight embedded in the drawings.

The finishing of 3D printed walls offers flexibility according to your preferences. The walls can be plastered and painted like traditional houses and buildings. Additionally, it is possible to paint directly on the surface of the 3D printed walls.

Interestingly, many of our customers appreciate the natural appearance of the 3D printed walls and choose not to plaster them. By leaving the walls as-is, it showcases that the building is indeed 3D printed. In all cases, applying a protective coating to repel dust and dirt from the external environment is necessary.

The process for maintaining and repairing the walls varies based on the materials used for the project and the surface treatments applied, such as paint or plaster. It’s important to keep in mind that while the walls are 3D printed, they are essentially standard concrete walls.

Gaps for windows and doors are directly created from the architectural drawing during the printing process. After printing, you can install your choice of windows and doors. The printer’s code is adjusted using our software, allowing the printer to pause and provide time to position lintels, upon which the printing process resumes. 

To achieve precise alignment with respect to windows and doors, it’s crucial to consider multiple factors during the initial design phase, including wall thickness and type, window dimensions, sill height, frame placement (both exterior and interior), and lintel design. 

The tallest 3D printed building in the world is located Saudi Arabia. It is a 3-storey villa developed by Dar Al Arkan. 

The largest 3D-printed building made of real concrete has been made by a group that incorporates the German College of Innovation in Oman (GUtech), Mexican cement producer CEMEX, and COBOD. The 190 square meter (2045 square feet) building is located in Oman.


The BOD2 is an open-source 3D construction printer capable of working with various materials, including concrete, mortar, or any other printable substance. This approach promotes cost-efficiency, as it allows for the utilization of locally sourced raw materials. 

COBOD holds the belief that mixes are restrictive and costly. We do not impose the use of such mixes on our customers. This approach ensures flexibility and cost-effectiveness, making projects more manageable and rewarding. 

Material costs vary depending on local prices for cement, aggregates, sand, and other chemicals like accelerators. Additionally, the cost depends on the specific concrete mix design you intend to use for your projects. 

We recommend our customers consider our material solution, D.fab. This solution facilitates the 3D printing of actual concrete, as opposed to mortar, resulting in potential material cost savings of up to 90%.

The setting time is strongly dependent on weather conditions and your mix design (additive proportions).

We use the term “layer time” to define the time from a layer that has been placed until a new layer is printed on top. This time can be set in the software and must be adjusted to the specific material used for your project.

We offer a range of material guidance options after purchase, including remote and on-site training sessions covering 3D printable materials and material delivery system operations. Our support extends throughout all project phases to ensure our clients receive continuous assistance.